KZ1200前桥、KQ2512-6×4轮边减速驱动桥总成使用维修说明书(中英文)

 作者:伞齿轮    |      2020-02-14 15:30

  特别提示:说明书中爆炸图及配件明细仅供了解产品结构及零部件对应位置,不可直接用于调件计划,如需准确零部件图号,请后台留言或加小编咨询。 ?前??? 言

  Preface

  ?

  本说明书阐述了KZ1200前桥、KQ2512-6×4轮边减速驱动桥的使用、维修及保养,同时对常见的故障进行了分析,并给出了结构图及零部件明细表。

  This manual describes the usage, repair andmaintenance of KZ1200 front axle and KQ2512-6×4 hub reductiondriving axle, also analyses the common malfunctions, besides gives theconfiguration drawings and spare parts list as well.

  记载次序大致如下:

  The contents are followed as below:

  ▲主要技术参数Main tech parameters

  ▲外形图及联系尺寸Outline drawing and dimensions构造

  ▲易损件Wearing parts

  ▲使用、保养及维修Use、maintenance andrepair

  ▲常见故障分析Common malfunction analysis

  ?为了使汽车充分发挥性能,并同时延长零部件使用寿命,各用户应严格按整车额定载荷载装,并按规定进行日常保养,不分大修、小修都应按照检修数据加以检修。

  In order to maximize the vehicle good performanceand extend parts service life, each user shall strictly load the cargoesaccording to the rated payload as settled, and keep daily inspection andmaintenance as stipulated, also ensure strict adherence to the standardexanimation data as well, regardless of major or minor repairs.

  此外,部件、油、脂等应使用纯正品种或指定品种。

  Besides, like the parts, oil, grease, etc.,please use the original or nominated brands.

  我们希望本手册能作为各用户使用、维修、保养车桥的指南。

  We hope this manual shall be the guidance foruser to use, repair and maintenance of axles.

  本厂产品,如果因质量提高、产品改进,恕不另行通知用户。若本手册部分内容与用户所购汽车不同,请予以谅解。

  Our products are subject to changes without priornotice due to quality and product improvements. Please be aware of that thismanual partial content may be different with the vehicle user purchased.

  ?

  ?山东蓬翔汽车有限公ShandongPengxiang Automobile Co., Ltd.

  ? 2014年7月第四版

  ? ? ? ? ? ?July, 2014 Fourth Edition

  一、主要技术参数MainParameters

  1、前桥主要技术参数Main Parameters of Front Axle

  额定轴荷Rated Payload? ? ? ? ?12000Kg

  轮辋安装面距Rim Fitting Surface Distance? ? ? ?2768mm

  钢板弹簧中心距Plate?Spring Center?Distance? ? 1090mm

  最大转向角?Max. Steering Angle? ? ?40°

  主销孔基准与钢板弹簧座面落差Difference between Kingpin Hole Criteria and Plate Spring Base? ? ? 80mm

  前轮外倾角Front Wheel Camber? ? ? ? 2°

  主销内倾角Kingpin Inclination Angle? ? ? ?8°

  主销后倾角Kingpin Caster Angle? ? ? ? ? ?2°30′

  前轮前束Toe in of Front Wheel? ? ? ? ? ?2-3mm

  制动器规格Brake? ? ? ?φ500×200mm

  轮胎螺栓及分布圆直径Tyre?Boltand Hub Distributed Diameter?????? 12×M24×1.5/φ425

  轮胎规格Tyre? ? ? ? 14.0-24

  2、中、后桥主要技术参数Main Parameter of Middle and Rear Axle

  额定轴荷RatedPayload? ? 25000Kg

  自重Self-Weight? ? 后桥约1.4t/中桥约1.5t ? ??Rear1.4t/Middle1.5t

  ? ? ? ? ? ?

  适用车轮轮距TrackWhee? ? ? 2220+2*轮辐厚度 ? ? 2220+2* arm thickness of wheel

  板簧销孔中心距Plate?Spring Pin CenterDistance? ? ? 1190

  适用轮辋型式Rim????? ????10.00W、10.00/1.5

  适用轮胎型式Tyre? ????????14.00-24、13.00-25 ?

  制动器规格Brake? ? ? ? ? ?φ500×200mm

  最小离地间隙Min. Height Clearance? ? ? ?360mm

  最大输出扭矩Max.Output Torque? ? ? ? ? 120000N.m

  ?速比Ratio????? 11.125/12.383/13.51/15.659/16.92

  ?轮胎螺栓及分布圆直径Tyre?Bolt and Hub DistributedDiameter?????? 12×M24×1.5/φ425

  ? ?二、前桥FrontAxle

  1、外形图及联系尺寸Outline Drawing and Dimensions2、构造及明细Configuration and Details

  2.1前桥总成和部分零件构造及明细Front Axle Assembly and Some Parts Configurationand Details

  2.2前轴总成和零件构造及明细Front Shaft Assy. And PartsConfiguration and Details

  2.3制动器总成和部分零件构造及明细Brake Assy. And Parts Configuration and Details

  2.4轮毂制动鼓总成和部分零件构造及明细Hub Brake Drum Assy. And Parts Configurationand Details

  3、易损件Wearing Parts

  三、后桥Rear Axle1、外形图及联系尺寸Outline Drawingand Dimensions2、构造及明细Configuration andDetails

  2.1后桥总成构造及明细Rear Axle Assembly and Parts Configuration and Details

  2.2后桥主减速器总成构造及明细RearAxle Master Reduction Gear Assembly Configuration and Details

  3、易损件WearingParts

  四、中 桥Middle Axle

  1、外形图及联系尺寸Outline Drawingand Dimensions2、构造及明细

  Configuration and Details

  ?2.1中桥总成构造及明细Middle Axle Assembly Configuration andDetails

  2.2中桥桥壳及主减总成构造及明细Middle Axle Master Reduction Gear AssemblyConfiguration andDetails

  3、易损件 WearingPart五、中、后桥制动器及轮边减速器Brake and Hub Reduction Gearof Middle and Rear Axle1、轮边减速器构造及明细Hub Reduction GearConfigurationand Details2、制动器总成构造及明细(Φ500×200)Brake AssemblyConfigurationand Details

  说明:由于中桥制动器总成与后桥制动器总成区别仅在于凸轮轴、凸轮轴支架、调整臂,所以这里不再做中桥制动器总成的分解图,仅在上表中列出图号。

  Note:The difference between brake assembly of middle axle and rear axle is cam shaftand cam shaft support, so exploded view of rear axle brake assembly isn’tshowed here but list drawing no.

  3、易损件Wearing Parts六、使用、保养及维修Usage, Maintenance and Repair1、新车桥的使用Usage ofNew Axle

  1.1 ?使用前:Before Use:

  1)向各个黄油嘴加注足量的2#锂基润滑脂。Fill enough 2 # lithium grease into each greasing nipple.

  2)从注油孔向中后桥主减速器内加注85W/90(GL-5)重负荷齿轮油至油孔平,中桥20升,后桥20升,轮边减速器每边各加6升,轴差注油2升。

  Please fill 85W/90 (GL-5)heavy-duty gear oil? into reduction gear by oil orifice till orificelevel Middle Axle 20L,Rear Axle 20L , and each hubreduction gear 6L, shaft differential mechanism 2L

  1.2 ?使用后:After Use:

  整车必须经过1500km跑合,重新调整刹车间隙,重新检查紧固件(涂胶螺栓除外)后,方可正式投入使用。It can be put into use only when brake clearance is readjusted andfasters are rechecked (except gluing bolts) after the vehicle runs 1500km.

  2、车桥的保养Maintenance of Axle

  2.1 ?常清除桥壳通气塞上的泥土、灰尘。Clean ventilation plug of axle housing frequently.

  2.2 ?经常检查加油孔螺塞和放油孔螺塞,如发现渗漏油现象,应及时拧紧或更换密封垫片。Check oil filling and draining plugs frequently. Tighten or changegasket timely if any oil leakage.

  ?2.3 ?每行驶2000km,向各处黄油嘴加注2#锂基润滑脂,清洗通气塞,检查桥壳内齿轮油面高度(打开油面螺栓检查)。Fill 2 #lithium grease into each greasing nipple every 2000km driving, clean ventilation plug and check gearoil level in axle housing (check by opening oil bolt).

  ?2.4 ?每行驶5000km,检查刹车间隙。Check brake clearance every 5000km driving.

  2.5? 每行驶8000—10000km,检查制动底板的紧固情况,检查轮毂轴承的松旷情况;检查刹车片的磨损情况,若刹车片磨损超过了限位凹坑,则须更换刹车片;检查桥壳内齿轮油的质量,如有变质、变稀等现象,应及时更换新油。初次换油里程数为1500km;以后每行驶10000km须重新更换齿轮油。中驱动桥加油加足后,行车5Km后停下车再检查下油面,以保证驱动桥过桥箱桥间差速器的油面高度。Every 8000-10000kmdriving, check brake bottom plate and hub bearing as well as brake disc. Ifbrake disc is worn over limitation, change brake disc immediately. Check gearoil quality in axle housing, and change new oil if becoming metamorphic andthin. First oil is changed with mileage 1500km, then every 10000km driving. After enough oil is filled in middledriving axle, stop and check oil level after 5km driving to make sure enough oil level ofdifferential mechanism of driving axle.

  2.6每行驶8000-10000km,分别在板簧与滑板之间的四处涂润滑脂。Greasing place between plate springs and sliding plate every 8000-10000km driving.

  3、前桥的拆卸、安装及调整Dismounting,Installation and Adjustment of Front Axle

  3.1? 总成的拆卸Remove Assembly

  (1)、拆卸前轮毂制动鼓总成Removefront hub brake drum assembly.

  ?1)、拆下轮毂轴承端盖。Remove hub bearing end cover.

  2)、取下螺栓、锁环及锁紧螺母。Take off bolt, ring andnut.

  3)、轻轻转动轮毂制动鼓、并用力向外抽拨,同时在制动鼓上轻轻敲击以震松外轴承内圈。待松动后,取下轮毂制动鼓。Turn hub brake drum smoothly and pull out, atthe same time knock brake drum to loosen inner race of outer bearing. Then takeoff hub brake drum.?

  注意:轮毂制动鼓总成较重,不要摔坏或砸伤人。Note: Take care since hub brake drum assembly isover heavy.

  (2)、拆卸横拉杆Removetie rod

  ?1)、拆下横拉杆臂和横拉杆接头的螺母及弹簧垫圈。Remove nut andspring spacer of tie rod arm and connector.

  2)、用拉力器将横拉杆臂与横拉杆分离。Separate tie rod arm and tie rod with PTO.

  3)、拆下接头上的横拉杆夹紧螺栓。Remove bolt on connector.

  4)、从横拉杆上拆下横拉杆接头。Take off tie rod connector from tie rod.

  5)、从横拉杆接头拔出开口销,拆下槽形螺母,分解各零部件。Pull out cotter from tie rod connector, removenut and parts.

  ?(3)、拆卸转向节Removesteering knuckle

  1)、拆除转向节上下臂。Remove steering knuckle upperand lower arm

  2)、从主销的上下端拆下堵盖、主销座和关联零件。Take offkingpin base and parts from kingpin.

  3)、拆下转向节。Remove steering knuckle.

  3.2? 总成的装配Assemble Assembly

  ? ? ? 各零部件的安装过程与上述过程相反,但要注意螺纹联接件的拧紧力矩和轴承预紧力的调整。The process of assembling parts is opposite withabove process, but pay attention to adjustment of screw joint parts tighteningtorque and bearing pre-tightening force.

  3.3? 车桥的调整Adjust Axle

  (1) 前束的调整Adjust toe-in

  1)、首先,将横拉杆紧固螺栓松开。Loosen tie rod bolt.

  2)、转动横拉杆,使前束值在轮胎外径处为2-3mm(斜交胎)。Turn tie rod and make toe-in value is 2-3mm at outer diameter of tire (Cross-plytire

  3)、拧紧横拉杆紧固螺母,此时左右接头的相互夹角不大于40,在最大转角时,横拉杆接头的摆动角应有余量。Tighten tie rod nut when angle between right and left connectoris no more than 40. When angle is maximum, swaying angle of tie rodconnector should have margin.

  (2) 刹车间隙调整Adjust brake clearance

  ? ? ? 当刹车间隙过大或过小时,会影响整车的制动性能,此时请用扳手调节调整臂上的蜗杆轴六方头。先顺时针方向转动,使间隙为零,再反转,听到两声钢珠滑落响为止,此时间隙为0.4-0.8mm。Too big or small brake clearance affects brakeperformance of the entire vehicle, at the time adjust hexagonal head of wormshaft on adjusting arm with wrench. Turn clockwise first to make sure clearance0 and then anticlockwise and stop till hear sound like steel ball falling twice,at the time clearance is 0.4-0.8mm.

  (3) 前轴与转向节轴向间隙调整Adjust axial clearance of front shaft andsteering knuckle

  1)、在主销表面涂一层薄薄的润滑脂。Grease kingpin.

  2)、将转向节总成、主销座及其关联件装于前轴总成上,选择适当的调整垫片来调整间隙,保证间隙0.1mm以下。Install steering knuckle assembly, kingpin baseand parts onto front shaft assembly and adjust clearance with proper spacers tomake sure clearance below 0.1mm.

  3)、将胶垫、堵盖(上臂总成)装于前桥总成上并用螺栓打紧。注意:各螺栓打紧力矩必须相同。Install rubber pad and plug (upper arm assembly)onto front axle assembly and tighten with bolt. Note: tightening torque of boltsmust be same.

  4)、测量转向节的起动力。起动力应小于15N。Test starting forceof steering knuckle, which is less than 15N

  注意:应在注润滑脂前,左右单独测量。Note: Test right andleft separately before inject grease.

  (4) 前轮毂轴承间隙的调整Adjust front hub bearing clearance.

  见图1,将序号17锁紧螺母旋紧,旋紧力矩为350~400N·m,同时转动序号16轮毂制动鼓总成,使轴承处于正确位置;然后松动序号17锁紧螺母,直至在序号16轮毂制动鼓总成的轮辋螺栓孔上施加30~40N的切向力,序号16轮毂制动鼓总成刚好能自由转动,然后锁死序号17锁紧螺母。See figure 1,tighten nut No.17 with torque 350~400N·m and turn hub brake drum assembly No.16to make bearing at right position. Then loosen nut No.17 till 30~40N tangential force is put on hub bolt hole of hub brake drumassembly No.16, at the time hub brake drum assembly No.16 can just turn freelyand then tighten nut No.17.

  4、中、后桥主要部件拆装时注意事项Attentionsfor Dismounting Main Parts of Middle and Rear Axle

  4.1 维修轮边减速及制动器Repair Hub Reduction Gear and Brake

  ?? ? ?1)需取出半轴时,如果本车配有轮间差速锁在半轴取出前,必须注意将差速锁接合上。,否则滑动啮合套会下落,掉在减壳里面,导致必须取下主减速器才能装配半轴。Before take off semi-shaft, differential lockmust be connected if the vehicle is equipped with differential lock, otherwiseslide shift sleeve will fall inside reduction gear shell, which makes that semishaft can be installed only when main reduction gear is taken off.

  ?? ? ?2)刹车蹄片必须配对使用Brake shoe must be used in pair.

  ? ???3)轮边减速器壳和行星架须配对使用,不能互换,且上面有对正标志。

  ??????? Hub reduction mechanism shelland planet gear support must be used in pair and can’t be changed with rightposition sign up.

  4.2 维修减速器时RepairReduction Gear

  ?? 主减速器的拆卸,只能够在两根半轴拆出后进行。Main reduction gear can be removed only when twosemi shafts are removed.

  ???? 1) 排放齿轮油Drain gear oil.

  ???? 2) 拆除轮边的端盖Remove hub end cover.

  ? ? ?3) 取出太阳轮和后桥半轴Take off sun gear and semi shaft.

  ? ? ?4) 拆出主减速器Remove main reduction gear.

  4.3在维修后第一次注油时,必须对中桥主减速器多加2升润滑油,(总共计22升),以使新装轴承有最佳磨合期。The first time to fill oil after repair, 2L lubricant more must be filled in middleaxle main reduction gear(total 22L),to make new bearing in best run-in.

  4.4在拆卸减速器壳和差速器轴承盖时,须作出标记,不能左右互换。Must mark when remove reduction gear shell anddifferential mechanism bearing cover and right and left can’t be changed.

  4.5在轴承预紧力定下来后,调整主、从动锥齿轮间隙时,一对差速器轴承调整螺母必须相等的旋入和旋出,以确保轴承预紧力不改变。After bearing pre-tightening force is set, whenadjust driving and driven bevel pinion clearance, nut of a pair of differentialbearings must be screwed in and out equally to make sure same bearingpre-tightening force.

  ?5、清洗与检查Clean and Check

  5.1清洗Cleaning

  ??? 零件上面可能沾有脏油和污泥,清洗零件是必不可少的过程。常用的方法有蒸汽清洗,汽油清洗,酸或碱性溶液清洗,中性剂清洗,三氯乙烯清洗和磁力清洗。在清洗过程中可能会出现一些零件损坏现象,因此在清洗过程中一定要仔细检查。It is essentialto clean the parts when stained with dirty oil and sludge. Commonly the cleanmethods include steam cleaning, petrol cleaning、acid or alkaline cleaning, neutraldetergent cleaning、trichloroethylenecleaning and magnetic cleaning. During the cleaning process, some parts maybedamaged; therefore, it shall be carefully inspected during cleaning period.

  (1)金属件Metal Parts

  ??? 1)汽油Petrol

  ??? 不同于别的方法,汽油几乎对于污泥没有渗透或溶解能力。除非零件表面被精确加工过,否则可以使用金属丝刷子或别的工具去清除污泥,并刷洗两遍。Different fromother methods, petrol almost has no penetration or dissolution ability tosludge.? Unless the parts surface wasprecision machined, please use metal wire brush or other tools to remove thesludge by twice.

  ?? ? 2)碱性处理AlkalineCleaning

  ??? 如果零件是由合金制成,则不能采用碱处理。用碱处理方法清洗钢件及铸铁件,效果非常好。If the partswere made by the alloy, it is forbidden to use alkaline cleaning. However theeffect shall be perfect to use this method to clean steel or iron castingparts.

  (2)橡胶件Rubber Parts

  ?? ? 不能使用矿物油。可用酒精清洗,或用一干净抹布擦掉脏物即可。It is forbiddento use mineral oil to clean rubber parts. However, you can use alcohol to cleanor wipe by using a clean cloth.

  ?(3)防锈蚀Anti-Corrosion

  ???? 在清除完零件表面上所有废油和油脂后,在表面涂上一层干净的油,以防锈蚀。After cleanedthe wasted oil and grease, please coat a layer of clean oil on the surface toprevent rust.

  ?5.2检查Inspection

  零件在清洗之前,采用事先准备的测量仪或工具进行检测。根据指定的维修标准来断定零件是否适合再使用,损坏零件应按要求修理或更换。如配对零件中有一个被严重磨损,其装配间隙超过规定,可根据需要更换该零件或配对零件。Beforecleaning, please inspect the parts by using prepared measuring instrument andtools, determine whether can be continued used according to nominated repairingstandard, and it is essential to repair or replace the damaged parts.? If one of matching parts is badly worn orassembly clearance exceeds the stipulated, please replace the matching partaccording to the requirements.

  ?? ? 从预防性保养的观点来看,某些处于修理或磨损极限内的零件,应在它们超过极限之前就进行更换。From the viewof preventive maintenance, some parts shall be replaced before their limit,although they are under repair or within their wear limits.

  ?? ? 所有零件都应通过观察外观或使用红外线探伤进行仔细检查。如果通过外观观察,发现以下反常现象,则该零件可根据需要进行修理或更换。All the partsshould carefully inspected by visual or infrared inspection. If the abnormal phenomenon shown as below appears byvisual inspection, the partsshould be repaired or preplaced as requirements.

  ?所有密封件,如O形圈,油封,密封垫圈等,一经拆卸,必须更换,不得重复使用。

  All the rubber parts, such as O’ ring,oil seal, seal washers, etc., once disassembled, they are must be replacedinstead of reinstalled.

  5.3异常现象Abnormal Phenomenon

  ? ????*不均匀磨损Uneven Wear?*铁锈Iron Rust? *偏磨Partial Abrasion?*失效或变弱(弹簧)?Failure or Weak (spring)*配合不紧Weak Matching?*刮伤?Scratching?*弯曲Curved*变质(制动器摩擦片)Metamorphism(BrakePad)*裂纹?Crack*变形Deformation?*变色Discolor?*不正常噪声(轴承等)Abnormal Noise (Bearing, etc.)

  6、前桥主要零件的维修标准Repair Standard of MainParts of Front Axle

  6.1、螺栓、螺母的拧紧力矩(Nm)Bolt and Nut Tightening Torque (Nm)

  转向节上臂螺栓(力矩保证相同)?? 540~596

  Bolt for Steering Knuckle Upper Arm

  (Make Sure Torque Same)

  转向节下臂螺母??????????????????540~596 Nut forSteering Knuckle Lower Arm

  前制动底板螺栓??????????????????540~596 Front BrakePlate Bolt

  限位螺栓锁紧螺母????????????????199~243

  Limitation Bolt and Nut

  转向球头销螺母??????????????????250~310 Steering BallPin Nut

  横拉杆接头螺母??????????????????126~154 Tie RodConnector Nut

  KZ1200前桥、KQ2512-6×4轮边减速驱动桥总成使用维修说明书(中英文)

  ?主销堵盖螺栓(螺栓力矩保证相同) 540~596

  Kingpin Plug Bolt (Make Sure Bolt TorqueSame)

  6.2、维修标准RepairStandard

  7、驱动桥主要部位螺栓扭矩及齿轮间隙BoltTorque and Gear Clearance in the Main Part of Driving Axle

  7.1、螺栓装配的拧紧力矩(Nm)? Bolt Tightened Torque(N.m)

  7.2、轴承预紧力及齿轮间隙Bearing Pre-tightening? and Gear Clearance

  七、常见故障分析及排除Common Malfunction Analysis and Solution1、车辆在行驶中,驱动桥发响的判断和排除。Analysisand Solution on Driving Axle Noises during Running

  ? ??该驱动桥为带轮边减速的驱动桥,行驶中,中、后桥发响,一般是以下原因造成的:The driving axle is equipped with hub reductiongear, during running, middle and rear axle make noises, mostly because:

  1)驱动桥齿轮的间隙过小或过大。Tooth gap of driving axle is over small or big.

  2)主、从动齿轮装配不当。Driving and driven gear is installed improperly.

  3)齿轮轴承调整不当,及轴承座孔磨损后重新装配不同心。When gear bearing is adjusted improperly andbearing base hole is worn, decentraction happens during reassembling.

  4)轮边减速器行星齿轮和内齿圈间隙由于磨损增大,换新后安装不当。Clearance between hub reduction gear planet gearand inner ring is over big for wearing, and reinstalled improperly.

  5)太阳轮和半轴花键磨损、间隙变大。Sun gear and semi-shaft key are worn andclearance is big.

  6)驱动桥壳弯曲变形。Driving axle housing is bent and deformed.

  判断及排除办法Solution

  1)行驶中如果中、后驱动桥出现连续的声响,用手摸驱动,如果有发热现象,可能是缺少润滑油,应检查油平面,少应添加。When middle and rear driving axle makecontinuous noises during running, if driving axle is hot felt by hands, it maybe lack of lubricant. Check oil level and add if lack.?

  2)如果行驶中出现有节奏的撞击声,一般是由于齿轮的齿隙过大,如果响声过大应拆检减速器,检查齿轮磨损情况,如磨损严重应更换。The cadent impact sound during running may becaused by over big clearance of gear. If the sound is too big, remove reductiongear to check. Change if worn seriously.

  3)如果行驶中,响声随车速的提高而加强,滑行时声音减少或消失,多半是轴承磨损和齿隙不当所致,应当更换轴承,调整齿隙。When noises become stronger as increased speedduring running and become weaker or disappeared during sliding, it may becaused by worn bearing and improper clearance, change bearing and adjustclearance.

  4)车辆在转弯行驶中,驱动桥出现响声,多半是差速器行星齿轮齿隙过大,或半轴齿轮键槽和半轴齿磨损过甚,应拆卸更换差速器行星齿轮,半轴齿轮。Noises from driving axle during turning may becaused by over big clearance of differential mechanism planet gear or by overworn semi-shaft gear key groove and semi-shaft tooth, remove and changedifferential mechanism planet gear and semi-shaft gear.

  5)如果行驶中突然发生异常的响声,多数是齿轮打坏,轴承散架。Sudden abnormal noises during driving may bethat gear is broken and bearing is fallen apart.

  6)轮边减速器行星齿轮和内齿圈啮合间隙大,也会出现随车速提高而增强的异响,应更换轮边减速器的齿轮及内齿圈。Over clearance between hub reduction planet gearand inner annular gear results in stronger abnormal noises as increased speed,change gear of hub reduction gear and inner annular.

  2、中桥桥间差速器损坏分析Analysison Damaged Differential Mechanism of Middle Axle

  桥间差速器(轴间差速器)是保证中、后桥传动差速运动的部件,桥间差速器和轮间差速器配合,中、后桥任意一个轮空转,其它三个轮便不会受力旋转,车辆不能行驶,不会发生单桥驱动全车载荷现象。Axle differential mechanism (shaft differentialmechanism) makes sure middle and rear axle transmission differential movement.Since axle differential mechanism works with wheel differential mechanism, whenany one wheel of middle and rear axle runs idly, the other three wheels willrun without suffering force and vehicle can’t run, thus it won’t happen that single axle drives theentire vehicle.

  如果桥间差速器失效,中、后桥传动轴变为刚性连接,会在运行中导致一系列的故障发生。Whenaxle differential mechanism doesn’t work, connection between middle and rear axle transmission shaftis rigid and a series of problems may happen during running.

  车辆转弯时,中、后桥车轮滚过距离是不一致的,由于桥间差速失效,不能再差速旋转,会造成轮胎拖滑,驱动桥内减速齿轮增加了附加载荷,齿轮的轮齿极易疲劳,断裂。The distances that wheels of middle and rearaxle runs are the same during turning. Since axle differential mechanism doesn’t work and can’t turn differentially, which makes tireslide and driving axle inner reduction gear increases additional load, further,gear tooth is easy to get tired and broken.

  当车辆陷入泥泞中,如果一个轮空转,挂上轮间差速锁,则整个车的负荷集中到一根驱动桥上,负荷过大,单个驱动桥难以承受,会导致减速器齿轮的打坏、折断。When vehicle traps into mud and one wheel runsidly, if hangs wheel differential lock, the whole vehicle load focuses on onedriving axle. With over load, single driving axle is hard to suffer and resultin reduction gear broken.

  桥间差速器是不可缺少的部件,使用中出现故障主要是行星齿轮、轴承的损坏,其损坏原因是润滑不良。桥间差速器位于中桥的最前端,主要是靠中桥减速器齿轮飞溅油进行润滑,由于桥间差速器距离远,车在低速运行时飞溅的油较少,润滑条件差,造成桥间差速器的损坏。而特别是油位低时更容易导致桥间差速器的故障。

  Axledifferential mechanism is necessary and most problem is damaged planet gear andbearing, which is mainly because poor lubrication. Axle differential mechanismis in the front of middle axle, which is mainly lubricated by splashed oil frommiddle axle reduction mechanism gear. Since distance of axle differentialmechanism is far and there is less splashed oil during low speed running, poorlubrication results in axle differential mechanism damaged. Especially when oillevel is low, it is easier to make axle differential mechanism problem.

  使用中应注意以下几点:Attentions during usage:

  1)驱动桥必须保证有足够的润滑油,应经常检查中、后桥的油面,不足的应及时添加,并注意向过桥箱中加油。Make sure enough lubricant in driving axle andcheck oil level of middle and rear axle frequently, add if necessary.

  ?2)每次二级保养均应检查油面、油质、对变质的油应予以更换。Check oil level and quality in everysecond-class maintenance and change degenerative oil.

  ?3)每次二级保养均应对桥间差速器进行性能试验,试验方法是:悬起中、后桥任一车轮,起动发动机使该轮旋转,桥间差速器应差速旋转,如果该轮不能顺利旋转,或桥间差速器内有杂音,均应进行拆卸检修。Test performance of axle differential mechanismin every second-class maintenance. Test procedure is: raise any one wheel ofmiddle and rear axle, start engine to make the wheel rotate, if the wheel can’t rotate smoothly or there is noise from axle differentialmechanism, remove and check.

  4)正确使用差速锁。当车轮打滑旋转,路面平坦,阻力不太大,又可以直线行驶时,可以使用桥间差速锁。当车轮打滑悬空时,严禁使用桥间差速锁,应找车牵引。Use differential lock correctly. When wheel slipson flat road with not big resistance but runs straightly, differential lock canbe applied. When wheel slips in the air, mustn’t use axle differential lock, instead dragged by othervehicle.?

  3、中、后驱动桥差速器打坏的原因分析:Analysison Damaged Differential Mechanism of Middle and Rear Driving Axle

  1)挂上轴间、轮间差速锁后,转动方向盘打坏差速器。挂上差速锁后,差速锁不再起分速差动作用,打方向盘转弯极易造成差速器损坏。After differential locks of axles and wheels areconnected, turning steering wheel breaks differential mechanism. Afterdifferential locks are connected, differential mechanism doesn’t work, at the time turning steering wheel makes it easy to breakdifferential mechanism.

  2)差速锁开关损坏。挂上差速锁,冲出不良路面后,应关掉差速锁开关。由于电器方面的原因,跷板开关故障,差速锁没有摘掉,打方向盘转弯造成差速器打坏。Differential lock switch is broken. Afterdifferential lock is connected and runs out of poor road, switch offdifferential lock switch. For the reason of electric appliance, rocker switchhas problem and differential lock is still connected, thus turning steeringwheel breaks differential mechanism.

  ?3)未在车辆处于停止状态下挂上差速锁。车辆还在运行中,挂上差速锁,由于扭力过大,打坏差速锁。Differential lock isn’t connected when vehicle stops. When vehicle is still running,connect differential lock and break differential lock for over big torque.

  注意:打坏差速器的根本原因是操作问题,提醒用户注意:挂上轮间差速锁以后千万不能打方向,要直线行驶。

  Attention: the key reason to breakdifferential mechanism is operation problem. Attention: mustn’t turn steering wheel after connect wheel differential lock andrun straightly.

  4、中、后驱动桥差速锁的正确使用、注意事项及检查方法Operation, Attentions and Check on Differential Lock of Middle and RearDriving Axle

  1)在车辆通过泥泞或不良路面要使用轴间差速锁时,最好在车辆处于停止状态(或相当于步行速度,但最好是在停止状态),通过驾驶室内的轴间差速锁跷板开关操作,是由电控气动阀来控制的,在接合差速锁时,必须先分离离合器,当轴间差速锁接合时,跷板开关下指示灯亮。When vehicle runs over muddy or poor road with axle differential lock,better park vehicle(or at the speed of walking, while better on the conditionof parking),operate byrocker switch of axle differential lock in the cab and controlled by electronicpneumatic valve, at the time of connecting differential lock, must separateclutch. When connect axle differential lock, low indicator of rocker switch ison.

  如果有轮间差速锁,装在主减速器壳体内侧。轮间差速锁和轴间差速锁的结构大体上相同。在它处于接合位置时,一根半轴被锁到差速器壳体上,使差速器不起作用,即两根半轴,以同样的转速同方向旋转。应注意的是:轮间差速锁,只有在车辆直线行驶时才能使用。在车辆处于停止状态下,或者是相当于步行的速度下通过驾驶室内轮间差速锁跷板开关操纵。也须在接合之前先分离离合器。应该强调的是:当车辆通过泥泞或不良路面,去掉轮间差速锁后,指示灯继续亮,车辆绝对不能转弯行驶,应停车查明原因,直到真正地摘掉轮间差速锁后,车辆才能转弯行驶,以免打坏差速器齿轮。Wheel differential lock is installed inside ofmain reduction gear case if any. The structure of wheel differential lock isalmost same with axle differential lock. When it is connected, one semi shaftis locked differential mechanism housing which makes differential lock notwork, that is two semi shafts run at the same time in the same direction. Attentions:wheel differential lock can be only used when vehicle runs straightly. Whenvehicle stops or runs at the speed of walking, it operates through wheeldifferential lock rocker switch in the cab and separates clutch beforeconnecting. Specially emphasize: when vehicle runs on muddy poor road, afterdisconnect wheel differential lock, indicator keeps on, vehicle mustn’t turn instead to check until completely disconnect differentiallock, in case to break differential mechanism gear.

  如果路况实在不好,需将轴间差速锁和轮间差速锁同时使用时,应先接合轴间差速锁,再接合轮间差速锁。接合之前均应先分离离合器。应注意接合轮间差速锁后,车辆不能转弯行驶。If road is terribly poor, it should use wheel and axle differentiallock at the same time. Connect shaft differential lock first and then connectaxle differential lock, which is done before separating clutch. Pay attention:after connect wheel differential lock, vehicle can’t make a turn.

  2)使用差速锁应注意事项:Attentions when use differential lock

  A:接合轴间或轮间差速锁,必须先分离离合器,在车辆处于停止状态下(或相当于步行速度行驶),通过跷板开关操作,接合后指示灯应亮。Connect axle or wheel differential lock after separate clutch. Whenvehicle stops (or runs at walking speed), it operates by rocker switch andindicator is on after connecting.

  ?B:使用轮间差速锁,车辆只能直线行驶,不允许转弯,转弯会打坏齿轮。When wheel differential lock is applied, vehicle can only runstraightly instead of turning otherwise gear may be broken.

  C:如果摘掉轮间差速锁,指示灯仍亮,车辆还是不能转弯,应停下查明原因,直到真正去掉轮间差速倘后,才允许转弯行驶。

  When remove wheel differential lock, indicator is onand vehicle still can’t turn, should find out the reason until wheel differential lock is removedcompletely, then vehicle can run and make turn.

  ?D:通过不良路面后,应去掉轴间差速锁,如指示灯还亮,应查明原因,确定已摘掉了轴间差速锁,如果不摘掉轴间差速锁,汽车行驶阻力大,速度提不起来,油耗增加。When vehicle runs on poor road, it should remove shaft differentialaxle, if indicator is still on, find out reason until make sure axledifferential lock is removed. If axle differential lock isn’t removed, vehicle speedcan’tincrease with big resistance, which will increase oil consumption.

  ?E:检查轴间差速锁和轮间差速锁的方法Check axleand wheel differential lock

  为了确保车辆有良好的通过性能,应定期对轴间差速锁和轮间差速锁的接合性能进行检查,做法是:每运行12000Km进行二级保养时,全面检查。

  For better performance, check connection of axle andwheel differential lock regularly. That is: check thoroughly duringsecond-class maintenance every 12000Km.

  ?3)检查方法Check

  ?A:将车辆停放在平坦、宽阔处,顶起车辆一侧驱动轴车轮(6×4顶起中、后;6×6顶起前、中、后;4×4顶起前、后;4×2顶起后),松开手制动阀,变速器在空档位置,用手转动顶起一侧的车轮,应能转动自如,如果转不动,说明差速锁在锁止状态。Vehicle parks on flat and wide place, lift driving axle wheel one side(6×4 lift middle and rear, 6×6 lift front, middle and rear, 4×4 liftfront and rear, 4×2 lift rear)

  ?B:在跷板开关、指示灯、线路、气路均正常的情况下,打开电源开关,指示灯应不亮。否则说明差速锁处在锁止状态,应进行检查,排除。When rocker switch, indictor, circuit and gas line works, open powerswitch and indicator isn’t on. Otherwise it means differential lock is locked, should check.

  ?C:起动发动机,气压达到0.7Mpa,按动跷板开关,分别挂上前、中、后轮间差速锁,转动顶起一侧的车轮,若转不动,说明处在锁止状态,否则差速锁没有挂上,应查明问题,并排除。Start engine with air pressure 0.7Mpa, press rocker switch, connect front,middle and rear wheel differential lock, turn and lift wheel one side. If thewheel can’t turn, it is locked, otherwise differential lock isn’t connected, should findout problem and solve.

  ?D:起动发动机,气压达到0.7Mpa,挂上轴间差速锁,转动顶起一侧的车轮,中、后驱动车辆应以同一速度旋转,说明轴间差速锁在锁止状态。Start engine with air pressure 0.7Mpa, connect axledifferential lock, turn and lift wheel one side, middle and rear driving axleshould runs at the same speed, which means axle differential lock is locked.

  E:在按动跷板开关后,指示灯应亮,如不亮且轴间和轮间差速锁已真正挂上,应查明电路故障。After press rocker switch, indicator is on. If not and axle andwheel differential lock are connected, should check circuit.

  ?5、中、后驱动桥轮边减速器零件修复及更换Repair and Changeof Hub Reduction Gear Parts of Middle and Rear Driving Axle

  ?? ??当轮边行星齿轮减速器有下列缺陷时,应予以修复或更换。

  When hub planet gear reduction has below problems,should repair or change.

  ?1)行星齿轮、内齿圈、太阳轮的轮齿工作表面严重磨损或轮齿折断。

  Working surface of planet gear, annular gear and sunwheel is worn seriously or broken.

  ?2)行星齿轮轴轴颈及行星齿轮内孔和滚针轴承的配合表面有严重的磨损痕迹。

  Matching surface of bore and roller bearing of planetgear shaft journal and planet gear is worn

  3)太阳轮齿轮花键孔和半轴花键磨损侧隙超0.6mm。

  Sun wheel gear splined hole and semi shaft spline isworn over 0.6mm.

  4)齿圈、花键孔和轴头花键磨损,侧隙超过0.8mm。Gearring, splined hole and spindle nose spline is worn over 0.8mm.

  5)行星齿轮内、外推力垫圈划伤或者有严重的磨损痕迹。Planetgear inner and outer thrust washer is scratched or worn seriously.

  6)太阳轮内、外推力垫圈划伤或者有严重的磨损痕迹。Sunwheel inner and outer thrust washer is scratched or worn seriously.

  6、制动鼓维修注意事项Attentions onRepair of Brake Drum

  制动鼓在使用中因为磨损而使内径增大,并会产生失圆、锥度,导致和轮毂不同心。当制动鼓的内表面锥度过大时 ,将使制动磨擦片和制动鼓的贴合面积减少,制动效能降低。当制动鼓失圆和轮毂不同心时,会造成制动蹄片和制动鼓接触不平稳,制动时会产生振动,并导致制动效能的降低。

  Bore of brake drum increases owing to wearingtogether with out of round and taper, which results in decentraction with hub.Increasing taper on the inner surface of brake drum makes fitting area of brakefriction disc and brake drum decrease and lower brake performance. Out of roundbrake drum and decentraction with hub makes brake shoe and brake drum contactunsteadily and vibration occurs during braking, which results in low brakeperformance.

  制动鼓在出现上述情况时,应拆卸检修。检修时,内径的磨损、失圆、锥度应用大号游标卡尺测量。在同一断面径向测量的最大和最小差值为失园,在轴线方向测量的最大和最小差值为锥度。制动鼓和轮毂的不同心度是以轮毂和轴承为基准,用带支架的千分表测量的。不同心度不能大于0.25mm。若制动鼓的锥度大于0.1mm,失园度大于0.2mm,不同心度大于0.25mm,且制动鼓的工作面又有深的沟槽时,应对制动鼓进行镗销加工。制动鼓的内径为500mm,由于镗削、磨损,内径会变大,刚度为之降低,制动时会产生弹性变形,致使制动蹄片的压紧力减少,制动效率降低。因此,制动鼓的内径不能大于504mm,如果镗削后制动鼓内径超过504mm,不能再继续使。